Hank Gilbert with a large melting furnace, circa 1948. Gilbert was key in helping develop a method for scaling up zirconium production, along with Dr. Kroll, Travis Anderson, and Leland Yerkes.

General history, database & publication links

History Hub NARA Research Support Community:

1946 Report on the Northwest Electrodevelopment Laboratory

Nuclear Propulsion Plant of the USS Nautilus:

U.S. Government Copyright guides:

NETL FOIA request form:

National Technical Reports Library:

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI):

National Technical Information Service (NTIS):

OSTI OpenNet:

DOE Declassification System:

NRC Public Document Room:

TRAIL: AEC Series Processing Inventories:

Hanford History Project:

DOE Photo Archive:

A is for Albany, Z is for Zirconium/ The Ore Bin, 1967:

The Atomic Energy Commission by Alice Buck, 1983:

Defense Technical Information Center:

Production of Malleable Zirconium, W. J. Kroll and W.W. Stephens/

Aerial hi-res photo collection of Albany / Albany Regional Museum:

Zirconium: A Bibliography of Unclassified Literature, 1951:

Zr-Hf sludge agriculture usage:

Thorium waste at Hanford from Albany:

United States, Congress, Senate, Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, 1957 (Thorium):,+Oregon%22+%2B+thorium&source=bl&ots=aQ2RMZjg-Y&sig=ACfU3U3327KMLTfVWUQfNucACpHRJ69AnQ&hl=en&ppis=_c&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiOyLeHvNXmAhVKGDQIHcXiBB4Q6AEwBnoECAcQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22albany%2C%20Oregon%22%20%2B%20thorium&f=false

Research and Development in the field of Thorium Chemistry and Metallurgy, 1956 (thorium melting in Albany):,+Oregon%22&source=bl&ots=IVcRA34AAp&sig=ACfU3U0cV3iPkKBZbqRF-GiD1BBSTvbMFg&hl=en&ppis=_c&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiUp7qE9ObnAhVXu54KHfIHA9wQ6AEwCXoECAcQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22Thorium%22%20%2B%20%22Albany%2C%20Oregon%22&f=false

High Temperature Experiments with Zirconium Compounds by Kroll, Carmody, and Schlechten, 1952; (bibliography of earlier works at end):

Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion (Zirconium overview):

Albany Bureau of Mines Scrapbook 1943-1946/ from the Steve Anderson Collection:

Albany Bureau of Mines Scrapbook 1946-1960/ from the Steve Anderson Collection:

William J. Kroll, A Luxembourg Scientist, Edited by Fondation Nicolas Lanners (unavailable online)

Black Sand, by Kathleen L. Housley (unavailable online)

Introduction: The Captain and the Scientist bibliography links (early 1950’s)

History of the development of zirconium alloys for use in nuclear reactors:

Chapter 1: The Power of Albany bibliography links (1940)

BPA Annual Report, 1943 (mentions possibility of an electrodevelopment laboratory):

1946 Report on the Northwest Electrodevelopment Laboratory

United States Bureau of Mines 1976:

United States Bureau of Mines:

Vince Hurley’s Train Recollection:

Albany Research Center Vol. 1, A Historical Evaluation, 1998/ U.S. Dept. of Reclamation, Bobbie Ferguson, Christine Pfaff

Albany Research Center Vol. 2, Inventory Forms, June 1997:

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memo to Senator McNary:

Chapter 2: Forward Momentum bibliography links (1943)

The Home: Log entries from the Ladies’ Aid Society Orphans Home, compiled by Bev Haven:

Steve Anderson on the NYA Machine Shop:

Chapter 3: A Laboratory Takes Shape bibliography links (1944)

RI 5141: Titanium Plant at Boulder City, NV:

Zirconium in the Nuclear Industry (Kroll quote): id=RjTFTU8LgpgC&pg=PA7&lpg=PA7&dq=%E2%80%9Cwhich+had+taken+up+titanium+reduction+as+an+investigation+project.+On+this+occasion+I+suggested+to+Dr.+R.+S.+Dean,+then+Assistant+Director,+that+I+would+be+in+a+position+to+produce+zirconium+in+a+similar+way&source=bl&ots=Wo2uGWAQyP&sig=ACfU3U1yRtmeCJutTpRp1t6eqp8_cjkI6g&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwikieXoq8bsAhVIuZ4KHefSBiwQ6AEwAXoECAgQAg#v=onepage&q=%E2%80%9Cwhich%20had%20taken%20up%20titanium%20reduction%20as%20an%20investigation%20project.%20On%20this%20occasion%20I%20suggested%20to%20Dr.%20R.%20S.%20Dean%2C%20then%20Assistant%20Director%2C%20that%20I%20would%20be%20in%20a%20position%20to%20produce%20zirconium%20in%20a%20similar%20way&f=false

IC 8266:

IC 8268: A.J. Kauffman Jr. :

Kroll Correspondence, April 27, 1944:

Chapter 4: Shifting Sands bibliography links (Fall 1944)

Hotel Benton National Register of Historic Places:

Mineral Resources of the United States, 1911:

History of Primary Magnesium:

Dogami Bulletin no. 24:

USGS Strategic Materials Investigation 1944, Mineralogical and Physical Composition of the Sands of theOregon Coast from Coos Bay to the Mouth of the Columbia River, by Allan B. Griggs, Bulletin no. 30:

Black Sand of the Pacific Coast, 1905:

Mining and Engineering World (V. 23, 1905):

Information Circular 8261, 1965:

Platnium by Dr. David t. Day, Ph D.:

Mineralogical and Physical Composition of the Sands of theOregon Coast from Coos Bay to the Mouth of the Columbia River by W.H. Twenhofel:

Krome Corporation Records Index:

RI 4915: High Temperature Experiments with Zirconium and Zirconium Compounds, published Nov. 1952, with work by Kroll, Carmody, and Schlechten. Confirms zircon was taken from Coquille.

Materials Survey: Chromium, 1962, confirms separations plant near Coquille:

IC 7761: Mentions Defense Plant Corporation Separations Plant at Beaver Hill:

Bulletin 945-E, Chromite-bearing Sands of the Southern Part of the Coast of Oregon:

Chapter 5: Trial and Triumph bibliography links (Jan 1945)

Liquid Metal Processing and Casting Experiences at the US Department of Energy’s Albany Research Center, Paul D. Jablonski and Paul C. Turner:

Chapter 6: The Little Laboratory that Could bibliography links (1945-July 1947)

IC 7341: Survey of Literature on the Metallurgy of Zirconium, by Kroll and Schlechten, 1946:

Chapter 7: The Ghost in the Machine bibliography links (1947-48)

The Manhattan Project: An Interactive History:

Nuclear Navy:

History of the development of zirconium alloys for use in nuclear reactors:

Oak Ridge National Laboratory: The First Fifty Years By Leland Johnson, Daniel Schaffer:

Zirconium in the Nuclear Industry, A. R. Kaufman Reference

Ore Bin, Nov. 1989:

Stockpile and Accessibility of Strategic and Critical Materials to the United States in Time of War 1954:

Physics Today, Herbert Pomerance:

RI 5485, A.J. Kauffman, Jr., Differential Thermal Analysis Applied to the Lime-Soda Sinter Process:

Atomic Glenn Seaborg:

The Metallurgy of Hafnium, edited by D.E. Thomas and E.T. Hayes / Naval Reactors & AEC:

The Ion Exchange Separation of Zirconium and Hafnium, 1948, Glenn Seaborg and Kenneth Street Jr.:

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review / 1983 / Captain Rickover and Oak Ridge by Herb Pomerance (A.R. Kaufman + Hf)

Third Biennial Report, Postwar Readjustment and Development Commission:

Fir Oaks Charter 1948:

Admiral Rickover’s Gamble:

Miracle Metals Serving in War and Peace by Robert Gordon, Sc. D. :

Uranium Hunting Guides:

Chapter 8: Radio Silence bibliography links (1949-)

History of the Development of Zirconium Alloys for use in Nuclear Reactors:

Westinghouse Elec. Corp. v. Titanium Metals Corp. Explains zirconium for submarine development.

Miracle Metals Serving in War and Peace—A History of the Role Two Rare Metals Played in the Birth of Nuclear Power:

The Chemical Analysis of Zirconium and Zircaloy Metals/AEC

Large Scale Laboratory Production of Ductile Zirconium by Kroll, Anderson, H.P. Holmes, Leland Yerkes, and Hank Gilbert:

USMB Director James Boyd bio:

AEC Press Release on thorium needs, 1948:

Technical Report for the period February through April 1948, A.R. Kaufmann:

Melting and Casting Zirconium Metal, 1949, Kroll and Gilbert:

Future References:

A Bibliography of Confidential U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Reports/1956:

The Properties of Zirconium and Its Possibilities for Thermal Reactors, Jan 1949, by Fairchild of the Power Pile Division, AEC/ORNL:

**Corrosion Studies on Titanium and Zirconium Metals, began 1947, pub 1950:

Zirconium Progress Report, July 1953:

The Development of a Melting Method for Conversion of Zr Sponge to Corrosion Resistant Ingot, May 1950:

UNCLASSIFIED: (Redacted) Thermal Structural , Electrical, Magnetic and other Physical Properties of Titanium, Zirconiu, Hafnium, and Thorium and some of their Simple Compounds….etc. Technical Report No. 102-AC49/2-100-2, 1 February 1950 (USAF on Zirconium)

DECLASSIFIED: Albany Tin Reclamation, 1952:

Radiation Hazards Encountered in Arc Melting Thorium, RI 5969:

The Ore Bin, 1959, yttrium and moly in Albany:

Minerals Yearbook 1951 (zirconium history overview):

Zirconium, by Stephen M. Shelton, Scientific American 1951:


Irradiation Processing Department Monthly Report, May 1963 (trip logs to Albany re: thorium):

The Nuclear Industry 1968 (info on Wah Chang Zr production):

Interview with Howard Poppleton: Consensus Decision Making

Interview with Howard Poppleton: Phosphates

Interview with Howard Poppleton: Hafnium

Interview with Howard Poppleton: Cobalt 60 Project

Direct Reduction Processes for the Production of Titanium Metal / National Research Council (info on early Titanium work):

Petrographic Correspondence 1951: (retrieved from NARA/College Park, MD)

Telephone Directory, 1953:

Wah Chang Article, 1958:

Many thanks to Steve Anderson for digitizing many of the documents into .pdf format, and for Dennis Emerson for his specialty metals archive work at the Albany Regional Museum.

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