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Henry Gilbert with a large melting furnace, circa 1948. Gilbert was key in helping develop a method for scaling up zirconium production for the U.S.S. Nautilus, along with Dr. Kroll, Robert Beall, Earl T. Hayes, and Leland Yerkes.

General history, database & publication links

History Hub NARA Research Support Community:

Department of Energy FOIA Contacts:

Reports of Investigation in Order:

1946 Report on the Northwest Electrodevelopment Laboratory

Nuclear Propulsion Plant of the USS Nautilus:

History of the USS Nautilus:

Published papers by R.A. Beall:

U.S. Government Copyright guides:

NETL FOIA request form:

National Technical Reports Library:

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI):

National Technical Information Service (NTIS):

OSTI OpenNet:

DOE Declassification System:

NRC Public Document Room:

TRAIL: AEC Series Processing Inventories:

Hanford History Project:

DOE Photo Archive:

A is for Albany, Z is for Zirconium/ The Ore Bin, 1967:

The Atomic Energy Commission by Alice Buck, 1983:

Defense Technical Information Center:

Production of Malleable Zirconium, W. J. Kroll and W.W. Stephens/

Aerial hi-res photo collection of Albany / Albany Regional Museum:

Zirconium: A Bibliography of Unclassified Literature, 1951:

Zr-Hf sludge agriculture usage:

Thorium waste at Hanford from Albany:

United States, Congress, Senate, Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, 1957 (Thorium):,+Oregon%22+%2B+thorium&source=bl&ots=aQ2RMZjg-Y&sig=ACfU3U3327KMLTfVWUQfNucACpHRJ69AnQ&hl=en&ppis=_c&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiOyLeHvNXmAhVKGDQIHcXiBB4Q6AEwBnoECAcQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22albany%2C%20Oregon%22%20%2B%20thorium&f=false

Research and Development in the field of Thorium Chemistry and Metallurgy, 1956 (thorium melting in Albany):,+Oregon%22&source=bl&ots=IVcRA34AAp&sig=ACfU3U0cV3iPkKBZbqRF-GiD1BBSTvbMFg&hl=en&ppis=_c&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiUp7qE9ObnAhVXu54KHfIHA9wQ6AEwCXoECAcQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22Thorium%22%20%2B%20%22Albany%2C%20Oregon%22&f=false

High Temperature Experiments with Zirconium Compounds by Kroll, Carmody, and Schlechten, 1952; (bibliography of earlier works at end):

Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion (Zirconium overview):

Albany Bureau of Mines Scrapbook 1943-1946/ from the Steve Anderson Collection:

Albany Bureau of Mines Scrapbook 1946-1960/ from the Steve Anderson Collection:

William J. Kroll, A Luxembourg Scientist, Edited by Fondation Nicolas Lanners (unavailable online)

Black Sand, by Kathleen L. Housley (unavailable online)

Online Books by the Bureau of Mines, Albany (1970’s): file:///Users/taistith/Desktop/The%20Incomplete%20History%20of%20ARC/The%20Owl%20Room/Albany%20Metallurgy%20Research%20Center%20(U.S.)%20_%20The%20Online%20Books%20Page.htm

U.S. Government Films:

Introduction: The Captain and the Scientist bibliography links (early 1950’s)

History of the development of zirconium alloys for use in nuclear reactors:

Chapter 1: The Power of Albany bibliography links (1940)

BPA Annual Report, 1943 (mentions possibility of an electrodevelopment laboratory):

1946 Report on the Northwest Electrodevelopment Laboratory

United States Bureau of Mines 1976:

United States Bureau of Mines:

Vince Hurley’s Train Recollection:

Albany Research Center Vol. 1, A Historical Evaluation, 1998/ U.S. Dept. of Reclamation, Bobbie Ferguson, Christine Pfaff

Albany Research Center Vol. 2, Inventory Forms, June 1997:

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memo to Senator McNary:

Chapter 2: Forward Momentum bibliography links (1943)

The Home: Log entries from the Ladies’ Aid Society Orphans Home, compiled by Bev Haven:

Steve Anderson on the NYA Machine Shop:

Chapter 3: A Laboratory Takes Shape bibliography links (1944)

RI 5141: Titanium Plant at Boulder City, NV:

Zirconium in the Nuclear Industry (Kroll quote): id=RjTFTU8LgpgC&pg=PA7&lpg=PA7&dq=%E2%80%9Cwhich+had+taken+up+titanium+reduction+as+an+investigation+project.+On+this+occasion+I+suggested+to+Dr.+R.+S.+Dean,+then+Assistant+Director,+that+I+would+be+in+a+position+to+produce+zirconium+in+a+similar+way&source=bl&ots=Wo2uGWAQyP&sig=ACfU3U1yRtmeCJutTpRp1t6eqp8_cjkI6g&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwikieXoq8bsAhVIuZ4KHefSBiwQ6AEwAXoECAgQAg#v=onepage&q=%E2%80%9Cwhich%20had%20taken%20up%20titanium%20reduction%20as%20an%20investigation%20project.%20On%20this%20occasion%20I%20suggested%20to%20Dr.%20R.%20S.%20Dean%2C%20then%20Assistant%20Director%2C%20that%20I%20would%20be%20in%20a%20position%20to%20produce%20zirconium%20in%20a%20similar%20way&f=false

IC 8266:

IC 8268: A.J. Kauffman Jr. :

Kroll Correspondence, April 27, 1944:

Beaver Hill Separations Plant (pages 12 + 13)

Chapter 4: Shifting Sands bibliography links (Fall 1944)

Hotel Benton National Register of Historic Places:

Mineral Resources of the United States, 1911:

History of Primary Magnesium:

Dogami Bulletin no. 24:

USGS Strategic Materials Investigation 1944, Mineralogical and Physical Composition of the Sands of theOregon Coast from Coos Bay to the Mouth of the Columbia River, by Allan B. Griggs, Bulletin no. 30:

Black Sand of the Pacific Coast, 1905:

Mining and Engineering World (V. 23, 1905):

Information Circular 8261, 1965:

Platnium by Dr. David t. Day, Ph D.:

Mineralogical and Physical Composition of the Sands of the Oregon Coast from Coos Bay to the Mouth of the Columbia River by W.H. Twenhofel:

Krome Corporation Records Index:

RI 4915: High Temperature Experiments with Zirconium and Zirconium Compounds, published Nov. 1952, with work by Kroll, Carmody, and Schlechten. Confirms zircon was taken from Coquille.

Materials Survey: Chromium, 1962, confirms separations plant near Coquille:

IC 7761: Mentions Defense Plant Corporation Separations Plant at Beaver Hill:

Bulletin 945-E, Chromite-bearing Sands of the Southern Part of the Coast of Oregon:

IC 8268: Details about process at Beaver Hill:

Chapter 5: Trial and Triumph bibliography links (Jan 1945)

Liquid Metal Processing and Casting Experiences at the US Department of Energy’s Albany Research Center, Paul D. Jablonski and Paul C. Turner:

Ductile Zirconium from Zircon Sand. Kroll, Schlecten and Yerkes:

Chapter 6: The Little Laboratory that Could bibliography links (1945-July 1947)

IC 7341: Survey of Literature on the Metallurgy of Zirconium, by Kroll and Schlechten, 1946:

Chapter 7: The Ghost in the Machine bibliography links (1947-48)

The Manhattan Project: An Interactive History:

Nuclear Navy:

History of the development of zirconium alloys for use in nuclear reactors:

Oak Ridge National Laboratory: The First Fifty Years By Leland Johnson, Daniel Schaffer:

Zirconium in the Nuclear Industry, A. R. Kaufman Reference

Ore Bin, Nov. 1989:

Stockpile and Accessibility of Strategic and Critical Materials to the United States in Time of War 1954:

Stockpile and Accessibility, 1955:

Physics Today, Herbert Pomerance:

RI 5485, A.J. Kauffman, Jr., Differential Thermal Analysis Applied to the Lime-Soda Sinter Process:

Atomic Glenn Seaborg:

The Metallurgy of Hafnium, edited by D.E. Thomas and E.T. Hayes / Naval Reactors & AEC:

The Ion Exchange Separation of Zirconium and Hafnium, 1948, Glenn Seaborg and Kenneth Street Jr.:

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review / 1983 / Captain Rickover and Oak Ridge by Herb Pomerance (A.R. Kaufman + Hf)

Third Biennial Report, Postwar Readjustment and Development Commission:

Fir Oaks Charter 1948:

Admiral Rickover’s Gamble:

Miracle Metals Serving in War and Peace by Robert Gordon, Sc. D. :

Uranium Hunting Guides:

AEC Press Release on thorium needs, 1948:

Technical Report for the period February through April 1948, A.R. Kaufmann:

Chapter 8: Radio Silence and Operation Zirconium bibliography links (1949-1950)

History of the Development of Zirconium Alloys for use in Nuclear Reactors:

Westinghouse Elec. Corp. v. Titanium Metals Corp. Explains zirconium for submarine development.

Miracle Metals Serving in War and Peace—A History of the Role Two Rare Metals Played in the Birth of Nuclear Power:

The Chemical Analysis of Zirconium and Zircaloy Metals/AEC

Large Scale Laboratory Production of Ductile Zirconium by Kroll, Anderson, H.P. Holmes, Leland Yerkes, and Hank Gilbert:

USMB Director James Boyd bio:

MINES Magazine, Jan 1950/ Has a full page dedicated to AEC progress:

Chapter 9:Called the ‘Bureau of Mines’ by the Man on the Street (1950-1951)

***Petrographic Lab overview, 1950:

Zirconium Alloy Investigations for the Air Materiel Command, Shelton. Jan 1951 Declassified/ Hanford. file:///Users/taistith/Downloads/DA02832988.pdf

Bettis lab gave Pittsburgh a place in history of nuclear power:

Naval Reactors Facility history, 1950’s:

Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory history, 1950’s:

Corrosion of Zr and Zr Alloys: gives a great synopsis and timeline for Zr development:

Hewlett and Duncan Nuclear Navy photos only:

Declassified Hanford AEC trip report to Albany (low hafnium Brazilian sources):

Malleable Chromium and its Alloys, E.T. Hayes:

Chapter 10: Separation Anxiety (July 1951—)

Liquid Metal Processing and Casting Experiences at the US Department of
Energy’s Albany Research Center:
Paul D. Jablonski and Paul C. Turner (great early history commentary):

Homogeneous Reactor Project (discusses zirconium alloys being worked on, pg 111):

(1951 AEC):

Electrolytic Tin Plant:

Separation of Tantalum-Columbium by Solvent Extraction:

Zirconium purification: using a basic sulfate precipitation: Govro + Nielsen:

Chlorination of Zirconium Oxide:

Chapter 11: Uncommon Metals (March 1952-)

UFO Sightings over Albany:

Report on the UFO wave of 1947:

**Trip Report: Consultation on Zirconium Metallurgy and Mechanical and Physical Testing Methods, Feb 1952

USS Nautilus Keel Laying:

USS Nautilus Keel Laying Program Booklet:

UFO’S: A History 1952 June-July:

USS Nautilus Images from NavSource Online:

Core Shape of Fuel Elements Clad with Zirconium Alloy, June 11, 1953, Battelle. Describes the early Zircaloy products and fuel cladding:

1953 Account of Nautilus:

Zirconium Progress Report, July 1953:

AEC Semiannual Report 1953

A study of Consumable Electrode Arc Melting, 1953/ Beall:

**Ductile Chromium work, July 1953 on:

Haruo Kato, Chromium-Base Alloys:,+oregon&pg=PA795&printsec=frontcover

Haruo Kato Memorial:

**Bureau of Mines Chromium Work:

Chapter 12: Submarine in the Desert (Jan 1953—)

What It Felt Like to Test the First Submarine Nuclear Reactor/ The Atlantic:

Admiral Rickover’s Gamble:

They Harnessed the Atom:

**Physical Behavior of Sponge Zirconium and Zircaloy 2: A Handbook, December 1953.

Chapter 13: Bright Dreams and Nightmares (Jan. 1954—

Production of molybdenum metal by magnesium reduction of molybdenum oxides.:

Henry Gilbert photos:

Seventeenth Semiannual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission: Jan 1955. Covers the 1954 Atomic Energy Act, focus on peacetime purposes and privatization.

Liquid Metal Processing and Casting Experiences at the US Department of
Energy’s Albany Research Center
(Titanium skull casting, etc):

Thorium Melting:

International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland August 8-20, (possible uses for thorium) 1955:

Consumable Electrode Arc-Melting of Cold-Compacted Thorium Powder:

Bureau of Mines Chromium Supplied for Research, July 1953 to July, 1961, Including Names of Recipients and Nature of Studies:

Chapter 14: Untitled

Mae Yih Family History:

White King Mine:

Savannah River Thorium project? (C-13),+oregon&pg=PA135&printsec=frontcover

Future Resources

A is for Albany, Z is for Zirconium/ Ore Bin (1955 Titanium and Oremet)

** THE EFFECT OF IMPORTS OF TITANIUM SPONGE ON THE NATIONAL SECURITY: (heavily redacted, 2019, important, thorough titanium production history info)

Pile Exposure, March 1954:

**Second Meeting of Zirconium Testing, Dec 1954: Hayes (Superior Tubing)

Zirconium Hazards Research, 1956:

A Bibliography of Confidential U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Reports/1956:

The Properties of Zirconium and Its Possibilities for Thermal Reactors, Jan 1949, by Fairchild of the Power Pile Division, AEC/ORNL:

**Corrosion Studies on Titanium and Zirconium Metals, began 1947, pub 1950:

The Development of a Melting Method for Conversion of Zr Sponge to Corrosion Resistant Ingot, May 1950:

UNCLASSIFIED: (Redacted) Thermal Structural , Electrical, Magnetic and other Physical Properties of Titanium, Zirconiu, Hafnium, and Thorium and some of their Simple Compounds….etc. Technical Report No. 102-AC49/2-100-2, 1 February 1950 (USAF on Zirconium)

DECLASSIFIED: Albany Tin Reclamation, 1952:

Radiation Hazards Encountered in Arc Melting Thorium, RI 5969:

1994 Low Level Waste Vitrification:

The Ore Bin, 1959, yttrium and moly in Albany:

Minerals Yearbook 1951 (zirconium history overview):

Zirconium, by Stephen M. Shelton, Scientific American 1951:

USS Nautilus Keel Laying and Naming:


Irradiation Processing Department Monthly Report, May 1963 (trip logs to Albany re: thorium):

The Nuclear Industry 1968 (info on Wah Chang Zr production):

Interview with Howard Poppleton: Consensus Decision Making

Interview with Howard Poppleton: Phosphates

Interview with Howard Poppleton: Hafnium

Interview with Howard Poppleton: Cobalt 60 Project

Direct Reduction Processes for the Production of Titanium Metal / National Research Council (info on early Titanium work):

Petrographic Correspondence 1951: (retrieved from NARA/College Park, MD)

Telephone Directory, 1953:

Wah Chang Article, 1958:

AEC’s Pamphlet on Breeder Reactors:

Lawton D. Geiger obit:

Ductile Chromium for Cancer, 1953:

Rickover Memoir, by Richard Claytor

Robert Shoemaker interview (OSC graduate + USBM employee 1949):

Atoms on the Grid: Shippingport:

**Metallurgy Of Hafnium, Hayes (1955+) Good overview of the technical aspects of zirconium and hafnium.

Quarterly Report, March 1965: (Thorium Alloying)

Operation Hardtack/ Hummingbird involvement? :

John Roush ore submission 1954:

The U.S. Nuclear Weapons Complex Guide Map:

Many thanks to Steve Anderson for digitizing many of the documents into .pdf format, and for Dennis Emerson for his specialty metals archive work at the Albany Regional Museum.

1957 and Beyond:

Leonard Meteorite Collection (Willamette specimen):…..59..474L

Aeronautics and Space Report of the President January 1970/ Moon rock analysis by the Bureau of Mines:

Radiation-resistant bacteria/ OSU (photo):

Inactivation of the Radiation-Resistant Spoilage Bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans:

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