Resources

Hank Gilbert with a large melting furnace, circa 1948. Gilbert was key in helping develop a method for scaling up zirconium production, along with Dr. Kroll, Travis Anderson, and Leland Yerkes.

General history, database & publication links

History Hub NARA Research Support Community: https://historyhub.history.gov/welcome

1946 Report on the Northwest Electrodevelopment Laboratory

Nuclear Propulsion Plant of the USS Nautilus:

U.S. Government Copyright guides: https://www.usa.gov/government-works/

NETL FOIA request form: https://netl.doe.gov/form/foia-request-form

National Technical Reports Library: https://ntrl.ntis.gov/NTRL/

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI): https://www.osti.gov/

National Technical Information Service (NTIS): https://classic.ntis.gov/help/order-placing/

OSTI OpenNet: https://www.osti.gov/opennet/

DOE Declassification System: https://fas.org/sgp/library/rdd-5.html#I58

NRC Public Document Room: https://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/pdr.html

TRAIL: AEC Series Processing Inventories: https://trailguides.crl.edu/series/AEC

Hanford History Project: https://tricities.wsu.edu/hanfordhistory/

DOE Photo Archive: https://www.energy.gov/management/office-management/employee-services/photography#ETVC

Science.gov: https://www.science.gov/topicpages/z/zircon+sands+processed

A is for Albany, Z is for Zirconium/ The Ore Bin, 1967: https://www.oregongeology.org/pubs/og/OBv29n10.pdf

The Atomic Energy Commission by Alice Buck, 1983: https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/AEC%20History.pdf

Defense Technical Information Center: https://discover.dtic.mil/results/?q=%22albany%2C%20oregon%22#gsc.tab=0&gsc.q=%22albany%2C%20oregon%22&gsc.page=1

Production of Malleable Zirconium, W. J. Kroll and W.W. Stephens/ https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/ie50482a046

Aerial hi-res photo collection of Albany / Albany Regional Museum: https://photos.google.com/share/AF1QipPYBv5a9UnVT-641m6xK8JHxuDGemLyEE9RtPLv_-HiaRFhyNef1Aq_bTVP5FMFNg/photo/AF1QipPtgkLxd6gXhZr9u3JlkbEBYafeF1YRzCOjDy1-?key=UERHdGtydGUtT3pxZFRNQmhyYVpoa1JmX1hjX3Rn

Zirconium: A Bibliography of Unclassified Literature, 1951: https://books.google.com/books?id=Uxc2WiErclEC&pg=PA66&lpg=PA66&dq=%22malleable+titanium+and+zirconium%22+%2B+Kroll&source=bl&ots=IL0eqHt_qO&sig=ACfU3U2mDsmB7Ge_u5btp9KY_LMwWMgvMQ&hl=en&ppis=_c&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwje-66wsobnAhXD3J4KHX4wDMoQ6AEwAnoECAMQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22malleable%20titanium%20and%20zirconium%22%20%2B%20Kroll&f=false

Zr-Hf sludge agriculture usage: https://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/nuregs/staff/sr1717/nureg-1717.pdf

Thorium waste at Hanford from Albany: https://xcdsystem.com/wmsym/archives//2012/papers/12427.pdf

United States, Congress, Senate, Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, 1957 (Thorium): https://books.google.com/books?id=l8wjAQAAMAAJ&pg=RA5-PA137&lpg=RA5-PA137&dq=%22albany,+Oregon%22+%2B+thorium&source=bl&ots=aQ2RMZjg-Y&sig=ACfU3U3327KMLTfVWUQfNucACpHRJ69AnQ&hl=en&ppis=_c&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiOyLeHvNXmAhVKGDQIHcXiBB4Q6AEwBnoECAcQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22albany%2C%20Oregon%22%20%2B%20thorium&f=false

Research and Development in the field of Thorium Chemistry and Metallurgy, 1956 (thorium melting in Albany): https://books.google.com/books?id=xVBoF1R93X4C&pg=PA190&lpg=PA190&dq=%22Thorium%22+%2B+%22Albany,+Oregon%22&source=bl&ots=IVcRA34AAp&sig=ACfU3U0cV3iPkKBZbqRF-GiD1BBSTvbMFg&hl=en&ppis=_c&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiUp7qE9ObnAhVXu54KHfIHA9wQ6AEwCXoECAcQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22Thorium%22%20%2B%20%22Albany%2C%20Oregon%22&f=false

High Temperature Experiments with Zirconium Compounds by Kroll, Carmody, and Schlechten, 1952; (bibliography of earlier works at end): https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015078493148&view=1up&seq=46

Fundamentals of Metallic Corrosion (Zirconium overview): https://books.google.com/books?id=_6vNqsL16LsC&pg=PA571&lpg=PA571&dq=%22hafnium%22+%2B+%22zirconium%22+%2B+1947+%2B+oregon&source=bl&ots=pSFE1t2z_u&sig=ACfU3U1ewZyeCWR8NGilp5nzJquYXK0iaQ&hl=en&ppis=_c&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjs7ci32NroAhWGIDQIHbG-D10Q6AEwB3oECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22hafnium%22%20%2B%20%22zirconium%22%20%2B%201947%20%2B%20oregon&f=false

Albany Bureau of Mines Scrapbook 1943-1946/ from the Steve Anderson Collection:

Albany Bureau of Mines Scrapbook 1946-1960/ from the Steve Anderson Collection:

William J. Kroll, A Luxembourg Scientist, Edited by Fondation Nicolas Lanners (unavailable online)

Black Sand, by Kathleen L. Housley (unavailable online)

Introduction: The Captain and the Scientist bibliography links (early 1950’s)

History of the development of zirconium alloys for use in nuclear reactors: https://www.osti.gov/biblio/4240391-history-development-zirconium-alloys-use-nuclear-reactors

Chapter 1: The Power of Albany bibliography links (1940)

BPA Annual Report, 1943 (mentions possibility of an electrodevelopment laboratory):

1946 Report on the Northwest Electrodevelopment Laboratory

United States Bureau of Mines 1976: https://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00022529/00001/29

United States Bureau of Mines: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/US_Bureau_of_Mines

Vince Hurley’s Train Recollection:

Albany Research Center Vol. 1, A Historical Evaluation, 1998/ U.S. Dept. of Reclamation, Bobbie Ferguson, Christine Pfaff

Albany Research Center Vol. 2, Inventory Forms, June 1997:

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memo to Senator McNary:

Chapter 2: Forward Momentum bibliography links (1943)

The Home: Log entries from the Ladies’ Aid Society Orphans Home, compiled by Bev Haven:

Steve Anderson on the NYA Machine Shop:

Chapter 3: A Laboratory Takes Shape bibliography links (1944)

RI 5141: Titanium Plant at Boulder City, NV: https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015078540179

Zirconium in the Nuclear Industry (Kroll quote): id=RjTFTU8LgpgC&pg=PA7&lpg=PA7&dq=%E2%80%9Cwhich+had+taken+up+titanium+reduction+as+an+investigation+project.+On+this+occasion+I+suggested+to+Dr.+R.+S.+Dean,+then+Assistant+Director,+that+I+would+be+in+a+position+to+produce+zirconium+in+a+similar+way&source=bl&ots=Wo2uGWAQyP&sig=ACfU3U1yRtmeCJutTpRp1t6eqp8_cjkI6g&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwikieXoq8bsAhVIuZ4KHefSBiwQ6AEwAXoECAgQAg#v=onepage&q=%E2%80%9Cwhich%20had%20taken%20up%20titanium%20reduction%20as%20an%20investigation%20project.%20On%20this%20occasion%20I%20suggested%20to%20Dr.%20R.%20S.%20Dean%2C%20then%20Assistant%20Director%2C%20that%20I%20would%20be%20in%20a%20position%20to%20produce%20zirconium%20in%20a%20similar%20way&f=false

IC 8266:

IC 8268: A.J. Kauffman Jr. :https://dggs.alaska.gov/webpubs/usbm/ic/text/ic8268.pdf

Kroll Correspondence, April 27, 1944:

Chapter 4: Shifting Sands bibliography links (Fall 1944)

Hotel Benton National Register of Historic Places: https://npgallery.nps.gov/pdfhost/docs/NRHP/Text/82003719.pdf

Mineral Resources of the United States, 1911: https://books.google.com/books?id=hAA6AQAAIAAJ&pg=PA996&lpg=PA996&dq=day+and+richards+platinum+coos+county&source=bl&ots=6srpz-XWhI&sig=ACfU3U1V_cewj7QMz1LRuooeGmYGMMH0FQ&hl=en&ppis=_c&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiLyaqQ_O3lAhUYvp4KHV6lDyAQ6AEwDHoECAwQAQ#v=onepage&q=day%20and%20richards%20platinum%20coos%20county&f=false

History of Primary Magnesium: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-48099-2_12

Dogami Bulletin no. 24: https://www.oregongeology.org/pubs/B/B-024.pdf

USGS Strategic Materials Investigation 1944, Mineralogical and Physical Composition of the Sands of theOregon Coast from Coos Bay to the Mouth of the Columbia River, by Allan B. Griggs, Bulletin no. 30: https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/0945e/report.pdf

Black Sand of the Pacific Coast, 1905: https://books.google.com/books?id=MBRAAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA163&lpg=PA163&dq=dr.+day+dr.+richards+sand+samples&source=bl&ots=LO4YYIB0nZ&sig=ACfU3U1La_QvyTDQaauYf2lmjY9qZhwrVw&hl=en&ppis=_c&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjCg9GWs-_lAhXEuZ4KHQmnD18Q6AEwAHoECAYQAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false

Mining and Engineering World (V. 23, 1905):

Information Circular 8261, 1965: https://books.google.com/books?id=jI2BA67kIxgC&pg=PT571&dq=zircon+sands+coos+bay+oregon+information+circular&hl=en&ppis=_c&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjJuui85vDlAhURFjQIHaviAWUQ6AEwAHoECAEQAg#v=onepage&q=zircon%20sands%20coos%20bay%20oregon%20information%20circular&f=false

Platnium by Dr. David t. Day, Ph D.:https://books.google.com/books?id=PzwX-xbaUGIC&pg=PA661&lpg=PA661&dq=mr.+day+and+mr.+kemp+platinum+oregon&source=bl&ots=ZWPcbW9eg-&sig=ACfU3U3j49qf9tJY2lNV193B0eTHCuyVnw&hl=en&ppis=_c&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj42KzOne7lAhXfFzQIHcqkDBIQ6AEwAXoECAUQAQ#v=onepage&q=mr.%20day%20and%20mr.%20kemp%20platinum%20oregon&f=false

Mineralogical and Physical Composition of the Sands of theOregon Coast from Coos Bay to the Mouth of the Columbia River by W.H. Twenhofel: https://www.oregongeology.org/pubs/B/B-030.pdf

Krome Corporation Records Index: http://archiveswest.orbiscascade.org/ark:/80444/xv51245/pdf

RI 4915: High Temperature Experiments with Zirconium and Zirconium Compounds, published Nov. 1952, with work by Kroll, Carmody, and Schlechten. Confirms zircon was taken from Coquille. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015078493148&view=1up&seq=15

Materials Survey: Chromium, 1962, confirms separations plant near Coquille: https://books.google.com/books?id=CvVpXqECmBwC&pg=PA84&lpg=PA84&dq=%22southwestern+engineering+company%22+oregon&source=bl&ots=uCO8dwVUKg&sig=ACfU3U25g5xiFLoebRP1SKO6_gH5wqHKIw&hl=en&ppis=_c&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiGlJy3o57nAhXXpZ4KHfcQBRIQ6AEwAHoECAUQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22southwestern%20engineering%20company%22%20oregon&f=false

IC 7761: Mentions Defense Plant Corporation Separations Plant at Beaver Hill: https://books.google.com/books?id=vuKjxfYiuuUC&pg=RA6-PA12&lpg=RA6-PA12&dq=Defense+Plant+Corporation+Separation+Plant+%2B+beaver+hill&source=bl&ots=fMyF9Et_1u&sig=ACfU3U3Jji74yrIilrZwkJMO6FZRwVpBLg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjg7fuPwcfsAhUCip4KHaYACCMQ6AEwAXoECAEQAg#v=onepage&q=Defense%20Plant%20Corporation%20Separation%20Plant%20%2B%20beaver%20hill&f=false

Bulletin 945-E, Chromite-bearing Sands of the Southern Part of the Coast of Oregon: https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/0945e/report.pdf

Chapter 5: Trial and Triumph bibliography links (Jan 1945)

Liquid Metal Processing and Casting Experiences at the US Department of Energy’s Albany Research Center, Paul D. Jablonski and Paul C. Turner: https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/901746

Chapter 6: The Little Laboratory that Could bibliography links (1945-July 1947)

IC 7341: Survey of Literature on the Metallurgy of Zirconium, by Kroll and Schlechten, 1946: https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015077577651&view=1up&seq=3

Chapter 7: The Ghost in the Machine bibliography links (1947-48)

The Manhattan Project: An Interactive History: https://www.osti.gov/opennet/manhattan-project-history/https://www.osti.gov/opennet/manhattan-project-history/

Nuclear Navy: https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2013/08/f2/HewlettandDuncanNuclearNavyComplete.pdf

History of the development of zirconium alloys for use in nuclear reactors: https://www.osti.gov/biblio/4240391-history-development-zirconium-alloys-use-nuclear-reactors

Oak Ridge National Laboratory: The First Fifty Years By Leland Johnson, Daniel Schaffer:https://books.google.com/books?id=y5WjYgMc7eEC&pg=PA44&lpg=PA44&dq=herbert+pomerance+and+hafnium&source=bl&ots=Cl9BtOIhZ0&sig=ACfU3U1kK5lN5MisljaqplAqFwVcs_dhMA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjf6LyX5K_sAhWnCjQIHdgsBLUQ6AEwDHoECAgQAg#v=onepage&q=herbert%20pomerance%20and%20hafnium&f=false

Zirconium in the Nuclear Industry, A. R. Kaufman Reference https://www.google.com/books/edition/Zirconium_in_the_Nuclear_Industry/N2wAco8Yc-MC?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=kaufman+%2B+MIT+hafnium&pg=PA36&printsec=frontcover

Ore Bin, Nov. 1989: https://www.oregongeology.org/pubs/og/OGv51n06.pdf

Stockpile and Accessibility of Strategic and Critical Materials to the United States in Time of War 1954: https://books.google.com/books?id=AXAssn1-OCMC&pg=RA1-PA64&lpg=RA1-PA64&dq=%22kaufman%22+%2B+hafnium+%2B+MIT&source=bl&ots=IMri53f6gK&sig=ACfU3U37kEhDqNTRoaMSfg1RmoD7_OcsDQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj5hLaNqLrpAhWCNX0KHdtpCVIQ6AEwBXoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22kaufman%22%20%2B%20hafnium%20%2B%20MIT&f=falsehttps://books.google.com/books?id=AXAssn1-OCMC&pg=RA1-PA64&lpg=RA1-PA64&dq=%22kaufman%22+%2B+hafnium+%2B+MIT&source=bl&ots=IMri53f6gK&sig=ACfU3U37kEhDqNTRoaMSfg1RmoD7_OcsDQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj5hLaNqLrpAhWCNX0KHdtpCVIQ6AEwBXoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22kaufman%22%20%2B%20hafnium%20%2B%20MIT&f=false

Physics Today, Herbert Pomerance: https://physicstoday.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.2809022

RI 5485, A.J. Kauffman, Jr., Differential Thermal Analysis Applied to the Lime-Soda Sinter Process: https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015078486548&view=1up&seq=3

Atomic Heritage.org: Glenn Seaborg: https://www.atomicheritage.org/profile/glenn-seaborg

The Metallurgy of Hafnium, edited by D.E. Thomas and E.T. Hayes / Naval Reactors & AEC: https://books.google.com/books?id=dqKgCIbq7hEC&pg=PA60&lpg=PA60&dq=did+seaborg+first+separate+hafnium+from+zirconium?&source=bl&ots=OuKL-QwcfM&sig=ACfU3U2rKvr_6pAFAOIVHP10Rri386k0kw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj-o4GFg9HpAhULt54KHagYAX0Q6AEwCnoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=did%20seaborg%20first%20separate%20hafnium%20from%20zirconium%3F&f=false

The Ion Exchange Separation of Zirconium and Hafnium, 1948, Glenn Seaborg and Kenneth Street Jr.: https://escholarship.org/content/qt7r23s1kg/qt7r23s1kg.pdf

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review / 1983 / Captain Rickover and Oak Ridge by Herb Pomerance (A.R. Kaufman + Hf) https://www.google.com/books/edition/Review/w0s0ZGloTKoC?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=%22a.R.+Kaufman%22+%2B+hafnium&pg=PA21&printsec=frontcover

Third Biennial Report, Postwar Readjustment and Development Commission: https://sos.oregon.gov/archives/exhibits/ww2/Documents/after-post-prdc6.pdf

Fir Oaks Charter 1948:

Admiral Rickover’s Gamble: https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1959/01/admiral-rickovers-gamble/308436/

Miracle Metals Serving in War and Peace by Robert Gordon, Sc. D. : https://www.power-eng.com/2000/10/01/miracle-metals-serving-in-war-and-peace151a-history-of-the-role-two-rare-metals-played-in-the-birth-of-nuclear-power/

Uranium Hunting Guides: http://national-radiation-instrument-catalog.com/new_page_14.htm

Chapter 8: Radio Silence bibliography links (1949-)

History of the Development of Zirconium Alloys for use in Nuclear Reactors: https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/4240391

Westinghouse Elec. Corp. v. Titanium Metals Corp. Explains zirconium for submarine development. https://casetext.com/case/westinghouse-elec-corp-v-titanium-metals-corp

Miracle Metals Serving in War and Peace—A History of the Role Two Rare Metals Played in the Birth of Nuclear Power: https://www.power-eng.com/nuclear/miracle-metals-serving-in-war-and-peace151a-history-of-the-role-two-rare-metals-played-in-the-birth-of-nuclear-power/#gref

The Chemical Analysis of Zirconium and Zircaloy Metals/AEC https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/4325231

Large Scale Laboratory Production of Ductile Zirconium by Kroll, Anderson, H.P. Holmes, Leland Yerkes, and Hank Gilbert: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.874.9011&rep=rep1&type=pdf

USMB Director James Boyd bio: https://www.nae.edu/188825/JAMES-BOYD-19041987

AEC Press Release on thorium needs, 1948: https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1951v01/d240

Technical Report for the period February through April 1948, A.R. Kaufmann: https://www.osti.gov/biblio/4319842

Melting and Casting Zirconium Metal, 1949, Kroll and Gilbert: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.832.9642&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Future References:

A Bibliography of Confidential U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Reports/1956: https://books.google.com/books?id=jpxf3r_-axkC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

The Properties of Zirconium and Its Possibilities for Thermal Reactors, Jan 1949, by Fairchild of the Power Pile Division, AEC/ORNL: https://technicalreports.ornl.gov/1949/3445603603704.pdf

**Corrosion Studies on Titanium and Zirconium Metals, began 1947, pub 1950: https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/pdfs/ADA951676.pdf

Zirconium Progress Report, July 1953: https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/4344049/

The Development of a Melting Method for Conversion of Zr Sponge to Corrosion Resistant Ingot, May 1950: https://www.osti.gov/biblio/4389077-development-melting-method-conversion-zirconium-sponge-corrosion-resistant-ingot

UNCLASSIFIED: (Redacted) Thermal Structural , Electrical, Magnetic and other Physical Properties of Titanium, Zirconiu, Hafnium, and Thorium and some of their Simple Compounds….etc. Technical Report No. 102-AC49/2-100-2, 1 February 1950 (USAF on Zirconium)

DECLASSIFIED: Albany Tin Reclamation, 1952:

Radiation Hazards Encountered in Arc Melting Thorium, RI 5969:

The Ore Bin, 1959, yttrium and moly in Albany: https://www.oregongeology.org/pubs/og/OBv21all.pdf

Minerals Yearbook 1951 (zirconium history overview): https://books.google.com/books?id=VMnWV70AYE4C&pg=PA1348&lpg=PA1348&dq=%22navy+department%22+%2B+%22ductile+zirconium%22+%2B+1947&source=bl&ots=BV5lBNTY-Z&sig=ACfU3U1GiL8kKvC5vysRoGS8XcGK5uUWrQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiFgfudvIDpAhWP9Z4KHbdrAr4Q6AEwAHoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22navy%20department%22%20%2B%20%22ductile%20zirconium%22%20%2B%201947&f=false

Zirconium, by Stephen M. Shelton, Scientific American 1951: https://www.scientificamerican.com/index.cfm/_api/render/file/?method=inline&fileID=6E87DAA0-CC1F-46CA-AB58EA1B57890804

APPLICATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION FOR THE SEPARATION OF ZIRCONIUM FROM HAFNIUM, Foos, R. A.Wilhelm, H. A. 1954: https://www.osti.gov/biblio/4354500

Irradiation Processing Department Monthly Report, May 1963 (trip logs to Albany re: thorium): https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10108270

The Nuclear Industry 1968 (info on Wah Chang Zr production): https://mountainscholar.org/bitstream/handle/11166/84687/cogjm.Report_Nuclear_Industry_1968.pdf?sequence=1

Interview with Howard Poppleton: Consensus Decision Making

Interview with Howard Poppleton: Phosphates

Interview with Howard Poppleton: Hafnium

Interview with Howard Poppleton: Cobalt 60 Project

Direct Reduction Processes for the Production of Titanium Metal / National Research Council (info on early Titanium work): https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a374031.pdf

Petrographic Correspondence 1951: (retrieved from NARA/College Park, MD)

Telephone Directory, 1953:

Wah Chang Article, 1958:

Many thanks to Steve Anderson for digitizing many of the documents into .pdf format, and for Dennis Emerson for his specialty metals archive work at the Albany Regional Museum.

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